Механізм удосконалення банківського кредитування аграрних підприємств

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Бечко, Валентин Петрович
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Умань: Уманський національний університет садівництва
Розглядаються проблеми розвитку кредитних відносин банківського сектору та сільськогосподарських товаровиробників у нових умовах господарювання. Вносяться пропозиції щодо активізації інвестиційного процесу та запровадження нових в аграрній галузі.
In modern conditions of management there is the increasing of the demand of agricultural enterprises for external sources of financing of their activities. At the same time, a very important condition is the observance of the optimal structure of the capital of an enterprise, this largely affects its financial stability and creditworthiness. Many agricultural enterprises in the process of conducting financial and economic activities have to use the borrowed capital, including loans from commercial banks, which is problematic at this time. Therefore, in the conditions of the market the development of various forms of management needs further research in order to find the ways to improve the financial and credit mechanism. Open joint-stock partnership “Shubynostavske” is an agricultural producer, which is characterized by seasonality of production, and consequently cyclical profit. However, the funds for economic activities are needed throughout the year. Open joint-stock partnership “Shubynostavske” has the opportunity to use the funds that can be obtained in the form of a bank loan. State support of agricultural enterprises has promoted trust between banks and agricultural producers. The average market interest rate for the use of short-term bank loans has fallen by almost three times. The use of the mechanism of cheapening loans has become the significant result, which has led to a decrease of real interest rates. The research has shown that the crediting of open joint-stock partnership “Shubynostavske” tends to grow, but in a small amount. Banks substantiate this by the instability of borrowers, so they do not risk issuing loans for a large sum and for a long period without an appropriate outpost. Outpost of 80% of the enterprises of the agro industrial complex is a future crop, which is characterized by a high 143 risk of loss through difficult climatic conditions. In accordance with the principle of lending, a bank must have the right to protect its interests in the process of lending, that is to avoid losses from defaulting the debt through the insolvency of the borrower. Therefore, the efficiency of lending by a banking institution is influenced by an effective system of protection from the risk of non-return of funds. Analysis of credit debts of open joint-stock partnership “Shubynostavske” with commercial banks for the purpose of outposts shows that bank institutions have a significant demand for disguised property. The value of the property ranges from 1.5 to 2. This means that if an enterprise provides an object with a market value of 2 million UAH, it can expect receiving a loan in the amount of 1 million UAH. Insufficient level of credit support for the studied agricultural enterprises is substantiated by an imperfect mechanism of lending. It can be mentioned that the derivative effect of negative features of modern credit relations in the agrarian sphere is the interdependent combination of the following main factors, the lack and high cost of credit resources of a creditor with insufficient profitability of the borrower. The issue of lending to agrarian enterprises can be resolved through the improvement of the lending mechanism. The use of land as an object of an outpost significantly increases the probability of obtaining a loan. Therefore, we believe that agricultural land should be considered as a potential and marketable outpost, which will provide an opportunity for agricultural producers to receive medium- and long-term bank loans. With the absence of land mortgages, warehouse certificates and other shipping documents for agricultural products can be used as a credit outpost. Credit instruments, which are used to improve financial support for the activities of the participants in the agrarian sector, also include credit union loans. The development of leasing relationships is the important factor in credit support of agricultural enterprises. Financial leasing makes it possible to save money for investing in other activities or purchase equipment that exceeds the annual financial costs, to solve the problems with obtaining funds, to improve financial condition, to strengthen it with modern forms of lending. The further development of agrarian enterprises largely depends on the credit mechanism, the development of the credit market and its infrastructure.
Ключові слова
ссільськогосподарські товаровиробники, кредит, кредитні зобов’язання, застава, пільгове кредитування, лізинг, факторинг, сельскохозяйственные товаропроизводители, кредит, кредитные обязательства, залог, льготное кредитование, лизинг, факторинг, agricultural commodity producers, credit, credit obligations, outpost, preferential crediting, leasing, factoring
Бібліографічний опис
Бечко В.П. Механізм удосконалення банківського кредитування аграрних підприємств / В.П. Бечко, С.М. Колотуха, К.М. Мельник // Збірник наукових праць Уманського національного університету садівництва / Редкол.: О.О. Непочатенко (відп. ред.) та ін. – Умань : Редакційно-видавничий відділ Уманського НУС, 2017. – Вип. 91. – Ч.2.: Економічні науки. – 164 с. (С. 128-143 (0,84 д.а.).