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Карпенко, Віктор Петрович
Адаменко, Дмитро Миколайович
Кравець, Ірина Станіславівна
Сухомуд, Оксана Григорівна
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Проаналізовано літературний матеріал вітчизняних і зарубіжних вчених стосовно створення та вивчення пшенично-пирійних гібридів і багаторічних пшениць. Наведено результати досліджень з вивчення фізико-біомічного складу (вміст хлорофілу, сухої речовини, активність ферментів) і окремих елементів структури врожаю багаторічної пшениці Kernza® і пшенично-пирійного гібриду Хорс в умовах Правобережного Лісостепу України.
The idea of using representatives of the genus Agropyron to improve the genotype of cultivated cereals, in particular wheat, belongs to M.V. Tsitsin, who in the late 1920s. began work on the search for wild forms of cereal plants that can be crossed with such important crops as rye, wheat and barley. Wheatgrass is characterized by the following valuable features that it is desirable to convey to cultivated cereals - winter hardiness, salt and drought tolerance, increased protein and gluten content in grains, disease resistance, less exacting soil fertility compared to wheat, multicolor and multi-spike. Thus, the protein content in the grain of wheat-wheat hybrids varies from 7 to 25-27%, gluten - from 5 to 70% and higher. Cross-pollination of flowers varies in fertility from 0 to 100%, with artificial self-pollination, up to 44 seeds per spike are formed. An analysis of the chemical composition of the plants of the ptrium wheat hybrid Khors, spelled wheat Zarya Ukrainy and perennial wheat Kernza® revealed certain changes depending on the phase of development of the crop. So the content of chlorophyll (a + b) is noted in the range of 1.33-2.71 mg / g of crude substance. Whereas for spelled wheat and perennial wheat, the chlorophyll content varied from 2.03-2.71 mg / g of raw material, while for wheat-wheatgrass hybrid Horse its content was 1.33-1.71 mg / g of raw material. Moreover, its decrease is observed from the tillering phase to the flowering phase. In the phase of grain formation, the content of chrolophil increased and amounted to 1.71 mg / g of crude substance Kernza® perennial wheat is characterized by high dry matter content - 29.9-32.2%. For the spelled wheat Zarya of Ukraine and the wheat-wheatgrass hybrid Horse, the dry matter content is almost the same and makes up 24.6-29.5% for spelled wheat and 22.6-26.4% for the wheat-wheat hybrid. A significantly significant difference in the studied elements of the crop structure was noted, which is confirmed by the results of analysis of variance. For all the studied parameters, except for the length of the spike, spelled wheat exceeds Kernza® perennial wheat. However, in spite of the much longer Kernza® spike (8.6 cm higher than spelled), the number of spikelets and grains in the spike is much less –– 16 and 30.9 pcs. respectively (at 24 and 41.2 pcs. for spelled). The same applies to the mass of grains from one ear and the mass of 1000 seeds –– 0.97 and 10.2 g. with indicators for spelled 2.13 and 38.6 gr. However, the established differences in the chemical composition and elements of the crop structure of the studied annual and perennial cereals do not reduce the value of the latter, especially taking into account the possibility of reducing costs per unit of production, improving the ecological condition and improving food security of the country, which makes these crops attractive to agricultural producers.
Ключові слова
багаторічні злаки, blue grass, хлорофіл, суха речовина, кількість зерен у колосі, маса 1000 зерен, біологічні особливості, продуктивність, perennial wheat, chlorophyll, dry matter, number of grains, weight of 1000 seeds
Бібліографічний опис
Карпенко В. П., Адаменко Д. М., Кравець І. С., Сухомуд О.Г. Біологічні особливості та продуктивність багаторічних злаків в умовах Правобережного Лісостепу України. Зб. наук. праць Уманського НУС. 2019. Вип. 95. Ч. 1. С. 7-18.