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Title: Урожайність і якість насіння проса залежно від особливостей збору врожаю
Other Titles: Yield and quality of millet seeds, depending on the characteristics of harvesting
Урожайность и качество семян проса в зависимости от особенностей сбора урожая
Authors: Полторецький, Сергій Петрович
Полторецька, Наталія Миколаївна
Keywords: просо, насіння, ступінь зрілості, строк збору, спосіб збору, посівні якості
millet, seeds, maturity, term of harvesting, harvesting method, sowing qualities
просо, семена, степень зрелости, срок сбора, способ сбора, посевные качества
Issue Date: 7-Jul-2015
Publisher: Уманський національний університет садівництва
Citation: Полторецький С. П. Урожайність і якість насіння проса залежно від особливостей збору врожаю / С. П. Полторецький, Н. М. Полторецька // Зб. наук. пр. Уманського НУС. — Умань, 2015. — Вип. 87. — Ч. 1: Агрономія. — С. 21–29.
Series/Report no.: Агрономія;Частина 1
Abstract: Наведено результати досліджень з вивчення впливу особливостей збору врожаю насінницьких посівів проса в умовах Правобережного Лісостепу. Встановлено, що найвищу врожайність і якість насіннєвого матеріалу проса забезпечує роздільний обмолот насінницьких посівів проса при наявності 65 – 70% зрілого насіння в волоті з терміном відлежування валка від трьох до шести діб.
Description: An urgent task is to develop a theoretical basis for the formation of high-quality millet seeds depending on agro-ecological conditions of the cultivation area, peculiarities of threshing and duration of storing rolls. This will help to understand deeper reasons for the decline of sowing qualities of seeds and allow predicting millet yield in subsequent generations. Studies were carried out in 2011 – 2013 in the crop rotation of Department of Crop Production. Two-factor field experiment provided the following factor gradations: A (degree of seed maturity in the panicle) – 25 – 30%, 45 – 50, 65 – 70 (control) and 85 – 90% of the seeds reached the phase of full ripeness; B (duration of roll storing) – direct harvesting and in three, six (control) and nine days after mowing. For sowing mid-season millet variety Zolotistoe was used. These studies formed the following conclusions. Getting a high seed yield of millet in the separate method of harvesting contributes the use of mowing term when the degree of maturity in the panicle reached 65 – 70% – respectively on average in threshing variants 3.85 t/ha. Premature mowing (25 – 30 and 45 – 50%) and the delay (85 – 90%) were accompanied by significant losses in seed yield – 0.44, 0.24 and 0.56 t/ha respectively. At dead-ripe stage of plants at the root (the degree of maturity is 85 – 90%) direct threshing of maternal plants is optimal – yield during the years of research was 3.55 – 4.21 t/ha which only in 2013 was significantly lower (0.36 t/ha) than in the control variant (65 – 70% of mature seeds in the panicle with roll storing for six days). Premature direct threshing resulted in significant losses (0.69 – 2/28 t/ha) of seed yield, and the deterioration of their quality (10 – 13 place). Storing rolls had an ambiguous effect on the harvest: at 25 – 30 and 45 – 50% of mature seeds in the panicle it was effective for a minimum of six days; 65 – 70% – variants of three and six days had the same efficiency; 85 – 90% – this agricultural method was inappropriate. The most influential factor that provided the greatest harvest of seed material was a good combination of mowing timing and duration of roll storing – 39 – 44% share of influence. Separate use of roll storing turned out to be no less influential – 33 – 41%, respectively. Forming a high level of vitality and viability indicators of millet seeds promoted the use of a separate method of harvesting upon the occurrence of 65 – 70% seed maturity in the panicle and duration of roll storing for three to six days.
ISSN: 0134–6393
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